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VALUE OF SOYA
Today almost everyone knows something about soya. All over the world soya is recognized as the best protein feed for animals and poultry. It is also commonly used in meat, dairy, oil-fat, confectionery and bakery industries, which also contributes to further growth of its production and processing in our country and worldwide.
Soya is currently the most important protein-oil crop of world farming and a recognized leader among cultivated legumes. Today almost every country uses soya or its processed products.
COMPOSITION AND USEFUL PROPERTIES
Soya has gained global importance through its unique biochemical composition and related multifunctional use. Oil content in soy seeds ranges from 16 to 27%. Soybean oil is characterized by high biological activity due to the increase of linolenic acid and as a result the increase of F-vitamin activity. Soybean oil accounts for more than 30% in total world production of vegetable oils.
Among all crops cultivated, soya is one of the highest-protein ones in the world. Human body absorbs soy proteins, unlike animal ones, by 90%. Soy protein is low-calorie and is rich in organic acids and does not form purine bases in the body, causing diseases of the joints. Soy protein content exceeds that in poultry meat by 14 times, eggs by 4 times, beef by 3.5 times. Soy protein contains 2 times more phosphoric acid than animal proteins, 4 times more minerals, 8 essential for the human body amino acids, contained only in meat products, and soy is several times cheaper than meat.
Mature soybean seeds contain vitamins A (retinol), B6 (pyridoxin), B9 (folacin), C, micro- and macro elements: calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and zinc. Characteristic feature of soybean is low carbohydrate content. Thanks to this, it is recommended for diabetes patients. According to the conclusion of the Nutrition Institute of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, soy products provide a distinct hypoglycemic effect in patients who stopped or reduced the dose of common anti-diabetic drugs, including insulin.
USE OF SOYA IN FOOD INDUSTRY
Soya has been used as a staple food in East Asian countries for thousands of years. Today people in homes and factories make milk and cheese curd, dou-fu, of soya. Soy sauces, soy meat with various tastes, specific fermentation products such as tempe and miso are made of soya as well. In some regions of China, there was a tradition according to which a girl, getting married, had to know about 100 recipes of soy dishes.
Over recent years in many European countries, North and South Americas, as well as in Russia, there has been a tendency of increasing the use of soy processing products in food industry, in health nutrition system, and especially in vegetarian meals. A number of specific biologically active components, isoflavones, oligosaccharides, saponins, as well as phytates and fiber allow to use some soy products in therapeutic nutrition. Soya is used in treating of many diseases: heart and vascular, liver, kidneys, intestine. Soya is used in treating obesity, hepatitis, diabetes and even cancer. Soy products are useful for kids and babies. The child's body quickly digests protein, grows well forming a strong skeleton. Soya is useful for adults as well. At female menopause soya practically eliminates developing osteoporosis, actively saturating the body with calcium. Soy products increase brain activity significantly and maintain a sharp memory.
USE OF SOYBEAN IN FEEDING FARM ANIMALS AND POULTRY
Recently there has been a tendency to gradually replace animal proteins with plant proteins in the feeding system. The richest and most affordable source of such protein is legumes (soybean, lupine, raps, peas, nute). Among them soya is of particular value, having all the necessary essential amino acids and fatty acids (lysine, methionine, tryptophan, linoleic acid), a whole complex of essential vitamins, which determine the completeness of feeding and high productivity of animals and poultry.
In world practice, a significant emphasis is placed now on the use of full-fat soya, which is at the same time a source of energy, protein and essential amino and fatty acids. Using this feed allows to fully realize the genetic potential of animals and poultry.
Analysis of world experience shows that the introduction of full-fat soya into the ration of highly productive poultry species plays a key role in increasing the production of broiler meat and eggs. The most efficient is the use of full fat soybeans. They are well-absorbed by all species of poultry. The linoleic acid that is part of the composition has a particularly beneficial effect on the increase in egg size. Addition of full-fat soya in amount of 10-25% to mixed feeds is economically viable.
Full-fat soya also contributes to increasing the intensity of pig live weight gain and improving pork quality.
The centuries-old practice of using soya in milking cows diets has always contributed to improving the quality of milk products: sour cream, cheeses, oils, etc. The use of full-fat soya in cow feeding provides the complete preservation quality characteristics in milk, which are essential in cheese production, including increased keeping quality characteristic.
Extruded full-fat soya is an essential high protein and high-energy feed in feeding rabbits, which increases the intensity of their growth, improves the quality of meat and fur.